Characteristics of Leisure

In "Motivational Foundations of Leisure" by Seppo E. Iso-Ahola and "Pathways to Meaning-Making Through Leisure-Like Pursuits in Global Contexts" by Yoshitaka Iwasaki, both authors are grappling with distinguishing leisure from other aspects of human life. To this end, they are trying to describe the basic characteristics that identify something as leisure as opposed to something not being leisure. However, the big problem for both of them is the elusive definition of "what is leisure," since it is difficult to describe its characteristics if it hard to distinguish leisure from what is not leisure. This problem is made even more difficult in modern society, in that there is something of a continuum between leisure and non-leisure, with many activities seeming like a mix of the two.

For example, a part-time entrepreneur who sets up a party-plan business is engaging in an economic activity, but it is also fun for her (usually the entrepreneur is a woman), and she might see organizing sales parties as a side venture To something she considers work. So maybe this business starts out as a leisure activity, but as she makes more and more money, she may spend more and more time putting on parties to build a serious business. Thus, at some point, holding these fun parties may cease to be a leisure activity – but exactly when this occurs can be hard to tell.

This same problem of distinguishing leisure and not-leisure confronts both Iso-Ahola and Iwasaki in trying to discuss the characteristics of leisure, in that many of these characteristics are use to describe leisure can be true of non-leisure activities, commonly considered work. Iwasaki tries to get around this problem by calling things that he characterizes as aspects of leisure as "leisure-like" activities, and by the same token, one might character what people normally call work as "work-like" activities, but this is Really more of a semantic sleight of hand. Calling something "leisure-like" – or "work-like" for that matter – purely provides a nomenclature that is fuzzier to identify a part of human life that is hard to define. In other words, using a fuzzy term to define what is considered an elusive hard-to-define quality simply points up the fuzziness, but it does not help to clarify the basic characteristics of what is leisure as compared to other aspects of human life.

For example, in the "Motivational Foundations of Leisure", Iso-Ahola seeks to find an explanation for what is leisure in the "basic innate (psychological) needs that are the main energizers of human growth and potential." From his perspective, this need which everyone is born with both defines what people consider leisure and direct them to be involved under various conditions to satisfy those needs. Given this driving need for leisure, then, Iso-Ahola suggests that having a sense of freedom or autonomy is "the central defining characteristic of leisure". However, he distinguishes this feeling of freedom from the everyday characterization of leisure as "free time", which people use for describing the time when they are not working, since only some of this time time may truly be free from any obligations so someone can Do exactly what they want to do.

For instance, if someone performs chores during this time period, this time would not be really free, although Iso-Ahola suggests that the more a person thinks of his work as an obligation, the more free that person would feel when he is engaged In nonwork activities, and there before that activity might really be considered leisure.

From this perspective, then, if a person truly enjoys their work and participates in a variety of activities that contribute to success at work, though these activities might otherwise be considered leisure for someone who engages in these activities for reasons that have nothing to do with Their job, these activities may no longer be considered leisure. An example of this is the salesman or CEO for a company that plays golf with other potential customers. On the one hand, golf is normally regarded as a leisure-time recreational activity. But it has become part of the salesman's or CEO's work, even though the salesman or CEO may freely choose to play golf or not, or engage in an alternate form of entertainment with prospective clients, such as taking them to a show or ballgame. If that person plays golf, goes to a show, or is a spectator at a ball game with members of his family and no work buddies are present, that might be more properly characterized as leisure. But in many cases, the salesman / CEO may take the family along on a golfing, show, or ballgame excursion with his work buddies, thenby muddying the conception of leisure. Under the circumstances, using a continuum from non-leisure to leisure activities may be a good way to characterize different types of leisure, rather than trying to make a distinction between what is leisure and what is not-leisure.

In any event, building on this notice that freedom is a basic characteristic of leisure, Iso-Ahola suggests that leisure activity is characterized by behavior that is self-determined, or which may start off as determined, but can become self-determined by the Process of "internalization" Therefore, to the extent that people perform everyday activities because they want to do so, they make them leisure-like. An example might be if I hate gardening (which I really do), but I start doing it because I can not afford to hire a gardener, and ever I start to feel joy in it, which would turn it into a leisure activity. (But since I can hire a gardener, I have no compelling reason to do this, so for now this is definitely not a leisure-time activity for me).

Then, too, according to Iso-Ahola, leisure might be characterized by escaping, which can contribute to internalizing an activity, which makes it even more a form of leisure.

Iso-Ahola brings together all of these ideas into a pyramid in which the greater one's intrinsic motivation and sense of self-determination, the more one is engaging in true leisure outside of the work context. On the bottom is obligatory nonwork activity participation, such as chores one has to perform in the house. On the next level above this, he diagnoses free-time activity participation in TV and exercise, which he feels are usually not true leisure, since people are not really autonomous in participating in either activity. He claims people lack autonomy in watching TV, because they do not really want to do this and it does not make them feel good about themselves (though this opinion of TV is questionable), and in the case of exercise, he claims that They feel they should do this because it's good for them, rather than because they want to. Finally, at the top of the pyramid is full leisure participation, where one feet complete autonomy and freedom, so one gains intrinsic rewards, a feeling of flow, and social interaction with others.

Finally, to briefly cite Iwasaki's approach to characterizing leisure, he seeks to describe leisure as a way of generating certain types of meanings, although the particular meanings may differ for people experiencing different life experiences or coming from different cultures. In Iwasaki's view, citing the World Leisure Association's description of leisure, meaningful leisure provides "opportunities for self-actualization and further contribution to the quality of community life." As such, leisure includes self-determined behavior, showing competence, engaging in social relationships, having an opportunity for self-reflection and self-affirmation, developing one's identity, and overcoming negative experiences in one's life. Iwasaki also goes on to describe the five key factors which are aspects of leisure (which he prefers to call "leisure-like" pursuits: 1) positive emotions and well-being, 2) positive identities, self-esteem, and spirituality; 3) social and cultural connections and harmony, 4) human strengths and resilience, and 5) learning and human development across the lifespan.

The History of Online Shopping

The internet is a fantastic and useful tool. With a click of our mouse we can read today’s news, play an online game and if we wish shop to our hearts content. But when did it all start? What is the history of Online Shopping and what does it mean to shop online?

Online shopping is the process a customer takes to purchase a service or product over the internet. In other words a consumer may at his or her leisure buy from the comfort of their own home products from an online store. This concept was first demonstrated before the World Wide Web was in use with real time transaction processed from a domestic television! The technology used was called Videotext and was first demonstrated in 1979 by M. Aldrick who designed and installed systems in the UK. By 1990 T. Berners-Lee created the first WWW server and browser, and by 1995 Amazon expanded its online shopping experiences.

The history of Online Shopping is amazing. Gone are the days of waiting in traffic and working our way through overcrowded stores. All we need is a computer, bank account, debit or credit card and voila freedom! From books, to cosmetics, clothing and accessories to name a few, shopping online is the answer to the 21st century. Simply find the website that offers the objects of your desire, price and delivery terms and in a matter of a few days your purchase is at your door. The advantages and convenience are obviously predictable as we are offered a broader selection, competitive pricing and a greater access to information in regards to our purchase. Online stores are usually available on a 24 hour basis, and permit consumers to shop at their leisure without any traveling and outside regular business hours!

Another point to take into consideration is that when the internet was first conceived it was not with the ideal that it would change the way we shop. On the contrary the web was created as a tool for communicating, which in time let to the convenience of shopping virtually. The history of online shopping by itself symbolizes the change in our society and has by now become a service used by business and regular shopper all over the world.

Shopping online is easy, fun and secure and has for many taken the place of the Saturday afternoon window shopping at the mail. Still considered as a fairly recent phenomenon, online shopping has without a doubt made the life of countless consumers easier and more convenient. May it be for a home loan, buying car or ordering your weekly groceries, the web has forever changed our outlook on shopping.

The history of online shopping shows to all that a good idea, great presentation, and a desire to offer the best to your customers can make a dream come true. Now considered tried and true, it will be interesting in the next 20 years or so to see where the History on online shopping will take us!

Important Things To Consider When Choosing A Hotel

Choosing a hotel to stay in is one of the most important decisions to make when planning a trip. This can be difficult, especially when embarking on a journey to an unfamiliar destination. A perfect choice can help make the trip a more exciting experience while a poor choice could ruin the trip altogether. Below we will discuss five major factors to consider before booking a hotel.


Choosing a hotel that suits your travel budget is a key factor to consider. This would help you save some cost if well thought out. Hotel prices are affected by location, hotel type (luxury or budget hotel) and also by the facilities. With the right research you can get a good bargain in a top hotel (especially when they offer discounts).


So many questions would come to mind when considering the hotel’s location. Is it close to the venue of your primary reason for travelling? Is it in a secure location? What is transportation in the area like? What are the tourist attractions around the area? Are there any medical centres around? All these questions and more need to be properly answered to make sure you are close to everything you would need throughout your stay.


This is one very important factor to consider because it helps you understand what facilities are available at the hotel compared what the ones you need. Therefore helps you avoid unpleasant surprises. For instance, it would be discouraging to find out that the hotel does not have Wi-Fi and internet connection, especially for those on a business trip. How about finding out that you might need to share the bathroom or some other conveniences.


Getting true value for money spent can only be done by comparing prices of the different hotels simultaneously. You can ask for discounts and other lucrative offers ad save some money. Apart from considering the price of the hotel, you can also research about value added services like laundry/dry cleaning, internet access, extended room services, etc.


Reading through the experiences of others who have stayed at any of the hotels you are considering would help to authenticate the quality and standard of the hotel. Though you can’t solely rely on this factor, most times these reviews are honest and vital resources needed when deciding between hotels. These reviews help you answer questions like are the hotel rooms clean, are the air conditioners working, how friendly is the customer service and whether the food at the restaurant is any good.

If you put these five factors into consideration before booking a hotel for your next trip, am sure you would not be disappointed with your choice.

Five Superior Patio Furniture Types For Summer Living

When you are looking for the perfect patio furniture to enhance the quality and comfort of your outdoor summer living, you need to invest in something that will hold up over time, yet still provide a comfortable lounging experience.

While many think they are getting a good deal with discount chain brands that cost very little, the reality is that these types of furniture simply do not hold up well over time, and can actually cost you more in the long run if you must replace them Every year.

By investing a little more in quality, you will find your budget for furniture stabilizes over a short amount of time.

Here are five of the best options for your money:

Iron Furniture: With a history that dates back as far as the second millennium BC, iron has been serving mannered for thousands of years. It is a terrific substance for meeting your patio furniture needs as it produces a strong product that will stand up over time and support the wear-and-tear that furniture naturally experiences through use and the elements.

Teak Furniture: Wrought deep from the heart of the monsoon forests, teak is a thick wood that builds in both durability and comfort when used for furniture designs. And as furniture, it is a great choice if you are looking for something that will resist the weather, as teak patio furniture choices are sanded and polished to perfection.

Rattan Furniture: A wood family that includes over 600 species of palms, rattan is a natural at making your furniture strong and comfortable at the same time. It is a substance easily shaped and adjusted for a variety of looks and designs while still maintaining the properties that make for one of the most relaxing pieces of patio furniture on the market.

Wicker Furniture: There is a reason wicker patio furniture is one of the most popular styles for your outdoors living needs. It has an antique look that adds style, grace, and elegance to any backyard or covered patio environment. There is just something about the look of a wicker weave that encourages admiration for its careful craftsmanship. Sometimes that is why furniture enthusiasts continue to make it one of the most popular.

Plastic Furniture: What plastic patio furniture lacks in choice and durability, it makes up for in comfort and maintenance. With plastic patio furniture, you do not have to constantly take action to improve or maintain the quality of the selection. It is lightweight, easy-to-move, and in its own way just as relaxing as its more expensive counterparts. It is perfect if you frequently host outdoor activities, or if you just want something at a lower cost.

Crack a cold one open and meet the family on the patio. It is time for summer, which means it is time to relax. With patio furniture that suits your tastes and your budget, you will be able to kick back and enjoy these days for all they are worth with your friends and family. And that, you can not put a price tag on!